thisiswhiteculture:

iknowwhythesongbirdsings:

scienceyoucanlove:

10 Black Scientists You Should Know

by 

1. Ernest Everett Just

In 1916, Ernest Everett Just became the first black man to earn a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in experimental embryology, but perhaps his greatest legacy is the sheer amount of scientific papers he authored during his career.

Just was born in 1883 and raised in Charleston, S.C., where he knew from an early age he was headed for college. He studied zoology and cell development at Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H., and worked as a biochemist studying cells at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts. He became a biology instructor at Howard University before finishing his Ph.D., and would spend 20 summers also working at Woods Hole. From 1920 to 1931 he was awarded a biology fellowship by the National Research Council. Just pioneered research into cell fertilization, division, hydration and the effects of carcinogenic radiation on cells.

Frustrated that no major American university would hire him because of racism, Just relocated to Europe in 1930. Once there, he wrote the bulk of his 70 professional papers, as well as two books. He died of pancreatic cancer in 1941 [sources: BiographyGeneticsGwinnet County Public Schools].

2. Patricia Bath

Patricia Bath improved the vision of generations thanks to her invention for cataract treatment.

Born in 1942, Bath’s educational achievements began early. She graduated high school in only two years, then earned a bachelor’s degree from Hunter College and a medical degree from Howard University before accepting an ophthalmology fellowship at Columbia University. It was during this fellowship that Bath’s research uncovered some staggering statistics: When compared with her other patients, blacks were eight times more likely to develop glaucoma and twice as likely to go blind from it. She set her sights on developing a process to increase eye care for people unable to pay, now called community ophthalmology, which operates worldwide. Bath became the first African-American to complete a residency in ophthalmology in 1973, and the first woman to join the ophthalmology department at UCLA in 1975.

By 1981, Bath was hard at work on her most notable invention, a laser probe that precisely treated cataracts with less pain to the patient. Using the laserphaco probe she devised, she was able to restore sight to patients who had been blind for as long as 30 years. In 1988, she became the first black female doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. Since her retirement in 1993, Bath continues to advocate for the medically underserved and has focused on the use of technology to offer medical services in remote regions [source: Biography].

3. Marie Maynard Daly

Marie Maynard Daly was a pioneer in the study of the effects of cholesterol and sugar on the heart and the first black woman to earn a Ph.D. in chemistry in the United States. She was born in 1921, at a time when minority women often were denied educational and employment opportunities, but she didn’t allow prejudice to stop her pursuit of the sciences. By 1942, she had earned a bachelor’s degree in chemistry with honors from Queens College in New York. She went on to complete a master’s degree, also in chemistry, just one year later.

It was while earning her doctoral degree from Columbia University that Daly’s research really began to gel. She discovered how internally produced compounds help digestion and spent much of her career as a professor researching cell nuclei. Importantly, she discovered the link between high cholesterol and clogged arteries, which helped advance the study of heart disease. She also studied the effects of sugar on arteries, and cigarette smoking on lung tissue. Daly established a scholarship fund for black students at Queens College in 1988. She died in 2003 [sources: African-American Pioneers in ScienceChemical Heritage Foundation].

4. David Harold Blackwell

David Harold Blackwell was one of the world’s most notable statisticians, but as a child he didn’t particularly like math. That was until he met the right teacher who opened a numerical world to him.

Blackwell, born in 1919, grew up in southern Illinois and by 16 was enrolled at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. At 22, he graduated from his home state university with a doctoral degree in mathematics and then studied at Princeton. Although Blackwell aspired to a teaching position, racial bias closed doors; he was denied posts at Princeton and at the University of California at Berkeley. However, he was offered a position at Howard University. (Berkeley later offered Blackwell a teaching job, and he became the university’s first black tenured professor in 1954).

While at Howard, Blackwell studied game theory and how it applied to decision-making in the government and private sectors during summers at RAND Corp. He became the United States’ leading expert on the subject, authoring a widely respected textbook on game theory, as well as research that resulted in several theorems named for him. One such theory, which explains how to turn rough guesses into on-target estimates, is known as the Rao-Blackwell theorem and remains an integral part of modern economics. In 1965, he became the first African-American to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. He died in 2010 [sources: SandersSorkin].

read more

Awesome post!!! Pay it forward!!!!

white people act like they invented everything soooooo here’s some proof that y’all didn’t

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

New York City: 100 Days of Bratton: Community Report and Speakout
Friday, April 11 - 5pm
One Police Plaza (across from City Hall), Manhattan
Called by New Yorkers Against Bratton
We’re going to hold a “Community Report and Speakout” on the first 100 days of the 2nd Bratton era on Friday, April 11th. We would like to hear fro activists and community members most affected by Bratton’s policies as we gather outside of 1 Police Plaza at 5p, to speak on these issues:- Bratton’s Criminalization of the Homeless The death of homeless veteran Jerome Murdough in his Rikers cell last month after being arrested for the crime of sleeping in a housing staircase raises serious concerns about what Bratton’s “collaborative policing” actually means for vulnerable New Yorkers . The criminalization of the homeless and a propensity to arrest people for low-level crimes is a trademark of Bratton and of Broken Windows theory. Bratton previously attempted homeless sweeps in February but cancelled after activists mobilized. His most recent homeless crackdowns in Skid Row, in Los Angeles, point to policing in the service of gentrification. What does that mean for New Yorkers today?- Bratton’s Police Crackdown in our Public Transportation SystemsThe increase of arrests of pandhandlers, acrobats and “churro” ladies in the subway system is classic Bratton. This also mirrors a crackdown that many have seen in NYC buses, most evident in a recent incident involving a young black man brutalized and arrested in the Bronx after being pulled off the bus by the NYPD. While Bratton touts official drops in Stop and Frisks, doesn’t a crackdown on immigrants, the poor and young people of color on subways and buses parallel the spirit (if not the exact policy) of racial profiling that a majority of New Yorkers have already rejected?- Bratton and De Blasio’s Vision Zero initiative After an incident in January involving an elderly asian man bloodily arrested for jaywalking, there are serious questions about what this broad strategy will mean for New Yorkers. Expanding the power of police to now target NYers for minor traffic offenses after years of activism revealed abuses of power is not what reform is about. George Kelling, whom many will recognize as Bratton’s go-to guy on policing policy and philosophy, has already linked it with the Broken Windows approach that he helped popularize. While these are some of the issues we have seen in the first 100 days of the new administration, we would like to incorporate as many views and opinions on the return of Bratton as possible. Bratton has largely controlled the media narrative and we need to make clear that the voices of the grassroots are the ultimate authority on what kind of job he and the NYPD are doing in our communities.

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

New York City: 100 Days of Bratton: Community Report and Speakout

Friday, April 11 - 5pm

One Police Plaza (across from City Hall), Manhattan

Called by New Yorkers Against Bratton

We’re going to hold a “Community Report and Speakout” on the first 100 days of the 2nd Bratton era on Friday, April 11th. We would like to hear fro activists and community members most affected by Bratton’s policies as we gather outside of 1 Police Plaza at 5p, to speak on these issues:

- Bratton’s Criminalization of the Homeless 

The death of homeless veteran Jerome Murdough in his Rikers cell last month after being arrested for the crime of sleeping in a housing staircase raises serious concerns about what Bratton’s “collaborative policing” actually means for vulnerable New Yorkers . The criminalization of the homeless and a propensity to arrest people for low-level crimes is a trademark of Bratton and of Broken Windows theory. Bratton previously attempted homeless sweeps in February but cancelled after activists mobilized. His most recent homeless crackdowns in Skid Row, in Los Angeles, point to policing in the service of gentrification. What does that mean for New Yorkers today?

- Bratton’s Police Crackdown in our Public Transportation Systems

The increase of arrests of pandhandlers, acrobats and “churro” ladies in the subway system is classic Bratton. This also mirrors a crackdown that many have seen in NYC buses, most evident in a recent incident involving a young black man brutalized and arrested in the Bronx after being pulled off the bus by the NYPD. While Bratton touts official drops in Stop and Frisks, doesn’t a crackdown on immigrants, the poor and young people of color on subways and buses parallel the spirit (if not the exact policy) of racial profiling that a majority of New Yorkers have already rejected?

- Bratton and De Blasio’s Vision Zero initiative 

After an incident in January involving an elderly asian man bloodily arrested for jaywalking, there are serious questions about what this broad strategy will mean for New Yorkers. Expanding the power of police to now target NYers for minor traffic offenses after years of activism revealed abuses of power is not what reform is about. George Kelling, whom many will recognize as Bratton’s go-to guy on policing policy and philosophy, has already linked it with the Broken Windows approach that he helped popularize. 

While these are some of the issues we have seen in the first 100 days of the new administration, we would like to incorporate as many views and opinions on the return of Bratton as possible. Bratton has largely controlled the media narrative and we need to make clear that the voices of the grassroots are the ultimate authority on what kind of job he and the NYPD are doing in our communities.

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Chicago: Hundreds of workers protest USPS privatization of postal jobs and services by Staples, April 5, 2014.

Photos by Joe Piette

5centsapound:

David Alan Harvey:  Oaxaca, Mexico (1992)

At one time a mesoamerican center whose cultures rivaled those of the better known Maya and Aztec, Oaxaca is now among Mexico’s poorest states. The Zapotec, one of the largest and most powerful groups in pre-Hispanic times, once dominated the Oaxaca Valley. The Zapotec people possessed a calendar system and written language and raised the hilltop city of Monte Alban, which reached its apex about A.D. 650, only to be mysteriously abandoned shortly thereafter. In a land the size of Indiana, 14 indigenous languages and 90 different dialects are spoken. The Zapotec, Mixtec, Chatino, Trique, Mixe and several other groups make Oaxaca the most ethnically complex state in Mexico.

I just feel like no matter what, prisons are bad for everybody. They aren’t just bad for trans people—they’re bad for all people. It wouldn’t be fair for me to make it seem like it was so hard for me, just as a trans women, because I’ve been around a lot of people who don’t deserve to be in prison at all. Prison is hard for everybody. We’ve all got our personal issues and have to do what we need to do to survive in there and be strong.

It’s not the right approach for people to sensationalize this story and say: You were a trans woman in a men’s prison. Because at the end of the day, all prisons are bad for all people—trans, cys, gay, straight, Black, white, Asian, brown, purple, polka-dotted, striped, zebra, alien or whatever.

Yes, I had my issues. I dealt with extra discrimination and extra scrutiny. I had to deal with things that other people wouldn’t have had to deal with in prison because I was a trans woman in a men’s prison. Of course, it was upsetting, and it was hard.

But I was blessed to have the support of a team that was willing to support me in this fight against the system. Not everyone in there had that—not everyone had support or someone to help them or be there for them, to protect them or understand them or get them in touch with the right resources. I was blessed to have that.

So yes, I can say how hard it was for me, but what about the people in prison who are there wrongfully or for petty charges or because of the criminalization of everything? There are men and women who have been in there for days, years, even decades—what about them?

COOL MANGA WITH BLACK FEMALE PROTAGONIST ALERT!!

shan-is-a-fan:

Have you all heard about this AWESOME manwha Westwood Vibrato?

image

It’s about a disabled West African woman living in Capetown, South Africa who repairs musical instruments. It’s a slice of life seinen manwha, created by Yoon In Wan, and Kim Sun Hee. Each chapter is about a customer and the story behind their instruments. It is so rare to find mangas/manwhas starring POC, especially WOC, and she is disabled! Anyway, please check this manga out here, here, or here!

Gentrification does not solve poverty, it merely shunts the poor out of the city…

Oakland: the city that told Google to get lost | The Guardian 

"A few blocks away, Maggie Larios, 30, a latina single mother sharing a cramped apartment with her two children, is all too aware of that choice. She earns just enough from a care-home job to pay the $685 monthly rent. But the landlord who owns the block is trying to evict her and other tenants who have complained about mould, cockroaches and broken windows. They suspect the neglect is intended to oust them so he can get in more lucrative tenants.

"The mould has made me sick," Larios croaks, indicating her throat. "When we went to court one of my neighbours had bugs on her. You should’ve seen the judge’s face." With her budget, Larios stands little chance of finding another apartment in Oakland. "I don’t want to be homeless. My kids and I went through a very bad experience in shelters." But inevitably they will be priced out, she says. "It’s gonna happen. A few years ago, to see a white person here was unseen footage. Now you see them walking the street even at night." Resistance could perhaps slow but not halt gentrification, she says. "Money talks, bullshit walks." Larios has kept one asset in reserve for emergencies: her long, luxuriant hair. "When the time comes I can sell it for $400.""

(via america-wakiewakie)

This is exactly what happened to the building downtown here.  They let it get bad and infested, then kicked out all the poor people living there, and now they’re completely fixing up the building to remodel it into upscale apartments.

(via locsgirl)

Same here in east liberty. They closed down schools and are putting up million dollar apartment complexes. Tore down projects for Target. Let the abandoned businesses get deplorable before buying and rehabing them. Local low income and poor folks cannot afford any of it. Any businesses that were okay prior to the gentrification have been priced out of their rent.

And since I live very close to all of it, just to get in my building you now pay 100 dollars more than I do and there have been no changes to the complex beyond what they typically do.

(via dynastylnoire)

sourcedumal:

sextoyconfessions:

meisterj:

Remember when Disney was all like ‘fuck how races work and homogeneous casts and couples’?

Black and white couple produce fillipino-american child. White dude is the valet. White step mother, one white step sister, one black step sister. Just a jumble, and it ought to happen again.

Some facts from imdb:

First multi-racial cast performing Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Cinderella.

Whitney Houston was producing Rodger and Hammerstein’s “Cinderella” and was to star in it until she decided that Brandy Norwood would make a better Cinderella. Brandy would not do it unless her idol Whitney took the Fairy Godmother role.

Brandy Norwood became the first African-American to play Cinderella. This version broke viewer-ship records when it debuted, and it holds the record for the bestselling video for a made for TV movie.

So fuck any noise where people say audiences don’t want to see a mixed race couple, or more people of color. This was a success from television. I still remember Brandy singing Impossible. 

That ought to happen again. Mixed race live action cast where the relationships don’t made genetic or racial sense.

This was my life when it came out…

This is my standard for diversity casting.

o-m-i-chaos:

"so what are your plans for after college?"

i will dismantle the establishment board by board

image

thepeoplesrecord:

Pre-school-to-Prison Pipeline: Studies confirm the dehumanization of Black childrenApril 6, 2014
Although African-Americans constitute only 13 percent of all Americans, nearly half of all prison inmates in the U.S. are black. This startling statistic has led the United Nations Human Rights Committee to publicly criticize the U.S. for its treatment of African-Americans. A number of recent studies and reports paint a damning picture of how American society dehumanizes blacks starting from early childhood.
Racial justice activists and prison abolition groups have long argued that the “school-to-prison” pipeline funnels young black kids into the criminal justice system, with higher rates of school suspension and arrest compared with nonblack kids for the same infractions. More than 20 years ago, Smith College professor Ann Arnett Ferguson wrote a groundbreaking book based on her three-year study of how black boys in particular are perceived differently starting in school. In “Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity,” Ferguson laid out the ways in which educators and administrators funneled black male students into the juvenile justice system based on perceived differences between them and other students.
Today this trend continues with record numbers of suspensions as a result of “zero-tolerance” school policies and the increasing presence of campus police officers who arrest students for insubordination, fights and other types of behavior that might be considered normal “acting out” in school-aged children. In fact, black youth are far more likely to be suspended from school than any other race. They also face disproportionate expulsion and arrest rates, and once children enter the juvenile justice system they are far more likely to be incarcerated as adults.
Even the Justice Department under President Obama has understood what a serious problem this is, issuing a set of new guidelines earlier this year to curb discriminatory suspension in school
But it turns out that negative disciplinary actions affect African-American children starting as early as age 3. The U.S. Department of Education just released a comprehensive study of public schools, revealing in a report that black children face discrimination even in preschool. (That preschool-aged children are suspended at all is hugely disturbing.) Data from the 2011-2012 year show that although black children make up only 18 percent of preschoolers, 42 percent of them were suspended at least once and 48 percent were suspended multiple times.
Consistent with this educational data and taking into account broader demographic, family and economic data for children of various races, broken down by state, is a newer study released this week by the Annie E. Casey Foundation that found African-American children are on the lowest end of nearly every measured index including proficiency in math and reading, high school graduation, poverty and parental education. The report, titled Race for Results, plainly says, “The index scores for African-American children should be considered a national crisis.”
Two other studies published recently offer specific evidence of how black children are so disadvantaged at an early age. One research project, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, examined how college students and police officers estimated the ages of children who they were told had committed crimes. Both groups studied by UCLA professor Phillip Goff and collaborators were more likely to overestimate the ages of black children compared with nonblack ones, implying that black children were seen as “significantly less innocent” than others. The authors wrote:

We expected … that individuals would perceive Black boys as being more responsible for their actions and as being more appropriate targets for police violence. We find support for these hypotheses … and converging evidence that Black boys are seen as older and less innocent and that they prompt a less essential conception of childhood than do their White same-age peers.

Another study by researchers at UC Riverside found that teachers tended to be more likely to evaluate black children negatively than nonblack ones who were engaged in pretend play. Psychology professor Tuppett M. Yates, who led the study, observed 171 preschool-aged children interacting with stuffed toys and other props and evaluated them for how imaginative and creative they were. In an interview on Uprising, Yates told me that all the children, regardless of race, were “similarly imaginative and similarly expressive,” but when their teachers evaluated those same children at a later time, there was a discriminatory effect. Yates explained, “For white children, imaginative and expressive players were rated very positively [by teachers] but the reverse was true for black children. Imaginative and expressive black children were perceived as less ready for school, as less accepted by their peers, and as greater sources of conflict and tension.”
Full article

thepeoplesrecord:

Pre-school-to-Prison Pipeline: Studies confirm the dehumanization of Black children
April 6, 2014

Although African-Americans constitute only 13 percent of all Americansnearly half of all prison inmates in the U.S. are black. This startling statistic has led the United Nations Human Rights Committee to publicly criticize the U.S. for its treatment of African-Americans. A number of recent studies and reports paint a damning picture of how American society dehumanizes blacks starting from early childhood.

Racial justice activists and prison abolition groups have long argued that the “school-to-prison” pipeline funnels young black kids into the criminal justice system, with higher rates of school suspension and arrest compared with nonblack kids for the same infractions. More than 20 years ago, Smith College professor Ann Arnett Ferguson wrote a groundbreaking book based on her three-year study of how black boys in particular are perceived differently starting in school. In “Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity,” Ferguson laid out the ways in which educators and administrators funneled black male students into the juvenile justice system based on perceived differences between them and other students.

Today this trend continues with record numbers of suspensions as a result of “zero-tolerance” school policies and the increasing presence of campus police officers who arrest students for insubordination, fights and other types of behavior that might be considered normal “acting out” in school-aged children. In fact, black youth are far more likely to be suspended from school than any other race. They also face disproportionate expulsion and arrest rates, and once children enter the juvenile justice system they are far more likely to be incarcerated as adults.

Even the Justice Department under President Obama has understood what a serious problem this is, issuing a set of new guidelines earlier this year to curb discriminatory suspension in school

But it turns out that negative disciplinary actions affect African-American children starting as early as age 3. The U.S. Department of Education just released a comprehensive study of public schools, revealing in a report that black children face discrimination even in preschool. (That preschool-aged children are suspended at all is hugely disturbing.) Data from the 2011-2012 year show that although black children make up only 18 percent of preschoolers, 42 percent of them were suspended at least once and 48 percent were suspended multiple times.

Consistent with this educational data and taking into account broader demographic, family and economic data for children of various races, broken down by state, is a newer study released this week by the Annie E. Casey Foundation that found African-American children are on the lowest end of nearly every measured index including proficiency in math and reading, high school graduation, poverty and parental education. The report, titled Race for Results, plainly says, “The index scores for African-American children should be considered a national crisis.”

Two other studies published recently offer specific evidence of how black children are so disadvantaged at an early age. One research project, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, examined how college students and police officers estimated the ages of children who they were told had committed crimes. Both groups studied by UCLA professor Phillip Goff and collaborators were more likely to overestimate the ages of black children compared with nonblack ones, implying that black children were seen as “significantly less innocent” than others. The authors wrote:

We expected … that individuals would perceive Black boys as being more responsible for their actions and as being more appropriate targets for police violence. We find support for these hypotheses … and converging evidence that Black boys are seen as older and less innocent and that they prompt a less essential conception of childhood than do their White same-age peers.

Another study by researchers at UC Riverside found that teachers tended to be more likely to evaluate black children negatively than nonblack ones who were engaged in pretend play. Psychology professor Tuppett M. Yates, who led the study, observed 171 preschool-aged children interacting with stuffed toys and other props and evaluated them for how imaginative and creative they were. In an interview on Uprising, Yates told me that all the children, regardless of race, were “similarly imaginative and similarly expressive,” but when their teachers evaluated those same children at a later time, there was a discriminatory effect. Yates explained, “For white children, imaginative and expressive players were rated very positively [by teachers] but the reverse was true for black children. Imaginative and expressive black children were perceived as less ready for school, as less accepted by their peers, and as greater sources of conflict and tension.”

Full article

elusivemulatto:

tell a grown ass man “no” n watch him revert to age 5 behavior